Aids to Letter-Writing Caryl de Trecesson This is a compilation of openings and closings from medieval manuscripts to assist you in your letter-writing. They include public exhortations, private love letters, a Valentine, letters from kings and letters from servants. I hope you will find something of interest here.
Origins[ edit ] Page from a 14th-century psalter Vulgate Ps Blackletter developed from Carolingian as an increasingly literate 12th-century Europe required new books in many different subjects. New universities were founded, each producing books for businesslawgrammarhistoryand other pursuits, not solely religious works for which earlier scripts typically had been used.
Various German language blackletter typefaces English blackletter typefaces highlighting differences between select characters Modern interpretation of blackletter script in the form of the font "Old English" which includes several anachronistic glyphs, such as Arabic numeralsampersand instead of Tironian et and several punctuation marks, but lacks letter alternatives like long s and r rotunda, scribal abbreviations and ligatures and contains several modernised letters such as x.
These books needed to be produced quickly to keep up with demand. Carolingian, though legible, was time-consuming and labour-intensive to produce. Its large size consumed a lot of manuscript space in a time when writing materials were very costly.
As early as the 11th century, different forms of Carolingian were already being used, and by the midth century, a clearly distinguishable form, able to be written more quickly to meet the demand for new books, was being used in northeastern France and the Low Countries.
The coloured chapter initials were handwritten by a rubricator after printing.
The term Gothic was first used to describe this script in 15th-century Italyin the midst of the Renaissancebecause Renaissance Humanists believed it was barbaric. Gothic was a synonym for barbaric.
Flavio Biondoin Italia Illustrata thought it was invented by the Lombards after their invasion of Italy in the 6th century. Not only were blackletter forms called Gothic script, but any other seemingly barbarian script, such as VisigothicBeneventanand Merovingianwere also labeled "Gothic".
This in contrast to Carolingian minusculea highly legible script which the Humanists called littera antiqua "the ancient letter"wrongly believing that it was the script used by the Romans. It was in fact invented in the reign of Charlemagnealthough only used significantly after that era, and actually formed the basis for the later development of blackletter.
Textualis[ edit ] Textualis, also known as textura or Gothic bookhand, was the most calligraphic form of blackletter, and today is the form most associated with "Gothic". However, the textualis was rarely used for typefaces afterwards. According to Dutch scholar Gerard Lieftinck, the pinnacle of blackletter use occurred in the 14th and 15th centuries.
For Lieftinck, the highest form of textualis was littera textualis formata, used for de luxe manuscripts. The usual form, simply littera textualis, was used for literary works and university texts.
Lieftinck's third form, littera textualis currens, was the cursive form of blackletter, extremely difficult to read and used for textual glossesand less important books. Some characteristics of the script are: In other scripts, this only occurred in a ligature with the letter o.
Otherwise the ascender is vertical. The letter s often has a diagonal line connecting its two bows, also somewhat resembling an 8, but the long s is frequently used in the middle of words.
This makes it very difficult to distinguish i, u, m, and n. A 14th-century example of the difficulty minims produced is, mimi numinum niuium minimi munium nimium uini muniminum imminui uiui minimum uolunt "the smallest mimes of the gods of snow do not wish at all in their life that the great duty of the defences of the wine be diminished".
In blackletter this would look like a series of single strokes. Dotted i and the letter j developed because of this. Schwabacher Schwabacher was a blackletter form that was much used in early German print typefaces. It continued to be used occasionally until the 20th century.
Characteristics of Schwabacher are: The small letter o is rounded on both sides, though at the top and at the bottom, the two strokes join in an angle. Other small letters have analogous forms. The small letter g has a horizontal stroke at its top that forms crosses with the two downward strokes.
The capital letter H has a peculiar form somewhat reminiscent of the small letter h. Fraktur Fraktur is a form of blackletter that became the most common German blackletter typeface by the mid 16th century.
Its use was so common that often any blackletter form is called Fraktur in Germany. Characteristics of Fraktur are: The left side of the small letter o is formed by an angular stroke, the right side by a rounded stroke. At the top and at the bottom, both strokes join in an angle.The blackletter style is then determined by a font with blackletter glyphs.
The glyphs in the SMP should only be used for mathematical typesetting, not for ordinary text. They are of limited use for writing German, as they lack umlaut diacritics and the ligature ß.
13) Copperplate style of writing is more of a modern type of calligraphy than medieval as this was widely adapted during the 18th and 19th century for copperplate engravings.
Nevertheless, this is a calligraphy style that has great medieval influence on it. Find medieval alphabet Stock Images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations, and vectors in the Shutterstock collection.
Full alphabet in the Gothic style. Vector. Letters and symbols on a white background.
Calligraphy and lettering. Medieval Latin letters. Individual letters. Elegant font for tattoo. The Kurrent Alphabet. Below is a full chart of the Gothic handwriting alphabet in Kurrent style.
The numbers 1 to 10 are also shown. The letters and numbers on this chart are the ones that you will be learning how to write momentarily. We have free medieval fonts to offer for direct downloading · Fonts is your favorite site for free fonts since Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland that spread to Anglo-Saxon England and continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.
Irish missionaries took the script to continental Europe, where they founded monasteries such as Bobbio.