Mencius, the greatest Confucian next to the sage himself, and Hsun Tzu, a near-contemporary who ended up influencing the Legalists more than Confucianism, disagreed about a key point regarding human nature: Are people fundamentally good?
References and Further Reading 1. As a young man he studied in the state of Qi in the northeast, which had the greatest concentration of philosophers of the age.
Leaving Qi, he traveled to many of the other states that made up China at the time, and was briefly employed by some of them. His last post ended when his patron was assassinated in BCE, ending his chances to put his theories of government into practice.
Like most philosophical works of the time, the Xunzi that we have today is a later compilation of writings associated with him, not all of which were necessarily written by Xunzi himself. The current version of the Xunzi is divided into thirty-two books, about twenty-five of which are considered mostly or wholly authentic and others of which are considered representative of his thought, if not his actual writings.
This is probably the largest collection of early Chinese philosophical writings that can be plausibly attributed to one author. The Xunzi is also notable for its style. Comparatively little of it is written in the dialogue format of works like the Mencius, and there are none of the fanciful parables of the Zhuangzi.
Most books normally attributed to Xunzi are sustained essays on one topic that appear to have be written as more or less unified pieces, though there are often sections of verse and two books that are merely compilations of poetry. In these writings, Xunzi carefully defines his own position and raises objections to rival thinkers in a way that renders his work more recognizable as philosophy than that of many other early Chinese thinkers.
This is one of the most common terms of Chinese philosophy, though all thinkers define it somewhat differently. Though the term originally referred to a road or path, it became extended to a way of doing things, a way of acting, or as it was used in philosophy, the right way to live.
In fact, Xunzi is notable for having probably the most rationalistic view of Heaven and the supernatural in the early period.
Xunzi claims that the Way was first pointed out by particularly wise and gifted people he calls sages a common term for an exemplar in early Chinese thoughtand following the Way as it has been handed down from the past will result in a stable, prosperous, peaceful society, while going against it will have the opposite results.
While certain aspects of the Way, such as particular rituals, are certainly created by humanity, whether the Way as a whole is created or discovered remains a matter of scholarly debate. Unlike many other early philosophers, Xunzi does not believe Heaven gets involved in human affairs.
The Way is not the Way because Heaven approves of it, it is the Way because it is good for people.
Heaven does not reward good kings with peace and prosperity, nor punish tyrants by having them deposed. These results come about through their own good or bad decisions.
One might wonder at them as unusual occurrences, but it is not right to be afraid of them or consider them ominous.
There will be some natural disasters, but if one is prepared they will not cause harm. Interestingly, though Xunzi has this rational view of Nature, which extends to spirits and gods as well, he never suggests eliminating religious rituals that are directed toward them, such as sacrifices and divination.
One must perform them as part of the ritual system that binds society together, but one does not perform expecting any results.
For no particular reason, I say. It is just as though you had not prayed for rain and it rained anyway. Yet during a drought, officials must still pray for rain—not because it has any effect on the natural world, but because of its effect on people.Later Developments – But is human nature originally good or evil?
Mencius subscribed to the former, while Hsun-tzu to the latter. Mencius subscribed to the former, while Hsun-tzu to the latter. Mencius tries to refute the view that human nature is neither good nor bad, arguing that humans are inherently good. Is Human Nature Originally Good Or Evil Mencius Hsun Tzu Views.
Wendy Swartz The Nature of Evil Hsun Tzu's philosophy is built from the idea that human beings are by nature inherently evil, and the good they produce will only come through their conscious activity. May 28, · Mencius, the greatest Confucian next to the sage himself, and Hsun Tzu, a near-contemporary who ended up influencing the Legalists more than Confucianism, disagreed about a key point regarding human nature: Are people fundamentally good?
These challenges have caused problems for mankind and caused hatred. The three philosophers Plato, Mencius, and Hsun Tzu have different views in regards to human beings, but they all agree that human beings need to be taught, trained, or led in order for them to live moral lives.
Opposing Views: Innate Good. Meng Tzu (or Mencius) was a Chinese philosopher, poet, novelist, and statesman. Today, he is still considered to be the second most important figure in Confucianism, with Confucius himself being the most important.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally..
The questions of whether there truly are fixed characteristics, what these natural characteristics are, and what causes them are among the oldest and most important questions in philosophy and benjaminpohle.com science that examines human nature is .