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Abbreviations If you are frequently confronted with decisions regarding abbreviations, get hold of a copy of either The Chicago Manual of Style or The Gregg Reference Manual.
Both these books contain extensive chapters on proper form in using abbreviations, as well as the possessive and plural forms of abbreviations. The plural of Mr.
Carter, Lincoln, and Ford. The plural of Dr. The plural of Mrs. In most formal prose, we do not use titles, abbreviated or otherwise, with individuals. Emily Dickinson is simply Emily Dickinson, and after the first use of her full name, Dickinson will do unless we need Emily to avoid confusion with other Dickinsons.
In informal language or when we're trying to save space or make a list, we can write Rev. In formal text, we would write "the Reverend Alan B. Darling" and "the Honorable Francisco Gonzales" i. Incidentally, we cannot say "We invited the reverend to dinner" and only a cad would invite "the rev.
These are standard abbreviations, with periods. The APA Publication Manual recommends not using periods with degrees; other reference manuals do recommend using periods, so use your own judgment on this issue.
All sources advise against using titles before and after a name at the same time i.
And we do not abbreviate a title that isn't attached to a name: If you list a "junior" with his spouse, the "Jr.
You should avoid using a "Jr. Have you ever run across an acronym or abbreviation and not known what it means? Try using the Acronym Finder. Just type in the letters and click on Search. Out of a database of overabbreviations and acronyms, the Finder will probably discover what you're looking for.
Also, we can use U. Terms of mathematical units: There is a space between the number and the abbreviation. Notice that we do not put an s after such abbreviations even when the plural is indicated. Also, we do not use a period with such abbreviations except for in.
When the term of measurement is used as a modifier, we put a hyphen between the number and the term of measurement: Long, common phrases, such as IQ Intelligence Quotientrpm revolutions per minutemph miles per hourand mpg miles per gallon.
Such abbreviations are acceptable even in formal academic text and may be used without periods. Words used with numbers: He left at 2: She was born in B. Either lower or upper case letters can be used with A. Sometimes you will see It is considered bad form to use these abbreviations without a specific number attached to them: If you can say for example as a substitute for the abbreviation, you want to use e.
Do not italicize or underline these abbreviations. Most sources recommend avoiding the use of Latin abbreviations except within parenthetical notes and some sources say not to use Latin abbreviations at all use the English terms instead except within citations or reference lists.
The Chicago Manual of Style recommends using a comma after i. Other resources say not to bother with the comma, but the comma makes good sense. Except in the business of formally citing material you've used in research, it's a good idea not to use et al. Spell out the word versus unless you're reporting game scores, when you would use vs.
Names of states and territories in references and addresses, but not in normal text. Abbreviations accepted by the U.If you’ve studied linguistics, you’ve learned that the study is not about prescribing how people speak but describing what actually happens when people use a language.
At any point in time, a language works according to a shared set of understood rules, which change over time as a language evolves. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Learn about Purdue University's College of Liberal Arts, a college focused on strengthening the Undergraduate Experience, enhancing Graduate Education, and promoting Faculty Excellence. Somehow, Amazon got the wrong word in its database.
No matter, the book is wonderful.
It's really chock full of rules, and examples to illustrate the rules, for such categories as Punctuation, Parts of Speech (all 8 parts of speech are represented), Easily Confused Words, and a Miscellaneous category that includes Numbers, Plurals, Abbreviations, and other matters.
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Don't get caught up in.