Adaptations Good School Toolkit The Good School Toolkit is a methodology created to help educators and students explore what makes a healthy, vibrant, and positive school and guide them through a process to create their vision. It deliberately focuses on ideas and activities that do not require dedicated financial resources—just commitment and perseverance to create something extraordinary.
Half of all these homicides occur in just 20 countries, all of them in the Caribbean, Latin America or Africa, with just 10 per cent of world population. These countries are the epicentre of world violence, and Jamaica is one of the most violent countries in this group.
These costs are also concentrated in the same 20 countries.
Jamaica has had a high level of violent crime for over four decades. Largely as a result, the economy of Jamaica is now, at best, one-third of the size it should have been; it may be only one-tenth of the size it could have been. In the rest of the world, however, violence has been declining for decades.
The number of homicides in the US in was lower than in the s; the number in Japan in was the lowest since the war, while in England the level of violence has fallen by 66 per cent since If these trends continue, the global level of non-conflict violence will be halved over the next three decades.
This raises questions as to why the levels of violence remain high in one small group of nations, while the rest are becoming more peaceful. There is a small group of factors that appear to account for most of the difference between violent and peaceful countries.
The violent countries tend to have similar weaknesses, and the ones that are becoming more peaceful have similar strengths or have made similar reforms. Multiple failures High levels of violence are always the result of multiple failures and weaknesses at many levels of society.
Most of the violent countries have weak or corrupt governance, poorly-performing economies, and incompetent or compromised institutions especially with regard to policing and justice that are not trusted by the people.
There are opportunities to make significant profits from crimes such as extortion, fraud, or trafficking narcotics and weapons, and the risk that criminals will be arrested and successfully prosecuted is low.
Many politicians and other leading members of society are venal and self-serving. In these circumstances, many people have recourse to violence to settle their disputes, rather than the law.
The countries with falling levels of violence are those that have made progress with regard to social control including better urban planning with regard to public spaces and transport, improved street lighting, stronger security systems for buildings and vehicles, more CCTV cameras, and the replacement of cash by electronic transactions ; social leadership, where influential members of society emphasise honesty, civility and respect; the effective rule of law, with transparent and accountable public institutions that can be trusted by the public, and have the will and the capacity to eliminate corruption, especially among public officials; and evidence-based policing, where systematic reviews of police strategy, tactics and organisation are used to ensure that resources remain focused on reducing the most damaging forms of crime, often with an emphasis on preventative policing and early intervention.
A strategy to transform a violent society therefore has to simultaneously resolve the weaknesses associated with violence and poverty, and develop the strengths associated with peace and prosperity. Progress to date Although Jamaica is still one of the most violent countries in the world, it is also clear that the nation has started a remarkable transformation.
Between andthe homicide rate fell by 35 per cent, largely as a result of the fall in the level of crime-related homicides, which means that the decline was primarily the result of changes in police strategies and tactics that helped to disrupt organised crime, dismantle gangs and prevent robberies, and other measures to resolve conflicts and reduce the level of violence.
The transformation started in Maywith the normalisation of Tivoli and the subsequent extradition of Christopher Coke. This significantly degraded the most powerful criminal organisation in Jamaica, demoralised remaining gangs, and resulted in the killing or arrest of many of the main violence-producers in Jamaica.
Most of the decline in the homicide rate occurred in the immediate aftermath of the Tivoli operation, i. There was an immediate 37 per cent fall in the number of homicides from the peak, the equivalent of fewer deaths, which is over eight times more than died in Tivoli in May The priority at that time was on ways to maintain the downward momentum.
Initially, the focus was on traditional crime control measures, so the number of curfews, for example, increased from about 2, in toper year in and That approach did not, however, address the underlying causes of crime, which include broken families and social decay; neglected and abused children, with early exposure to violence; the erosion of moral authority by entrenched systems of political corruption and patronage, links between politics and organised crime, and the influence of gang-dominated garrison communities and informal settlements, with bad housing, poor education and limited job opportunities.
Many large-scale government investments and development projects have resulted in no measurable economic benefit, largely because so much of the money has been misappropriated or channelled through networks of patronage. This has left many communities starved of the basic infrastructure — good schools, clinics, parks and transport links — that would have helped them escape poverty.
As a result, it became clear that the orthodox approach alone could not succeed. It was costly, and had passed the point of diminishing returns; tripling the number of curfews had only a modest effect on the level of violence. So the emphasis then shifted to a deeper analysis of the causes of crime, and a greater emphasis on resolving the underlying problems and preventing criminality, rather than just responding to crimes.
These approaches are not alternatives, but complementary; it is necessary to deal resolutely with crime while simultaneously resolving the causes of crime in order to bring about a permanent transition to a peaceful and orderly society.
This combination requires a multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral approach; the police and the security forces play an indispensable role, but they alone cannot solve all the social, economic, political, psychological and cultural problems in a society. The new approach was reflected in an increased emphasis on proximity policing, the deployment of violence interrupters, the Unite for Change initiative and the End Violence Project.
The first two represented a more preventative approach, with early interventions to stop feuds, reprisal killings and other factors that could trigger rapid escalations in the level of violence; the latter were based on the public health model of violence prevention, and were aimed at changing social norms to reduce the tolerance of violent and criminal behaviour and challenging the misplaced codes of loyalty and silence that protect vicious criminals.
There was also an increased emphasis on rehabilitation in the correctional facilities, with inmates learning trades to help them earn an honest living after release, with the goal of reducing the rate of re-offending and thereby reducing the pressure on the police and the prison system.Our research.
Democracy. Through our research on Democracy, Development and Social Cohesion we aim to strengthen our democratic society, its institutions and practices of governance in order to promote well-being, social justice, equality and active engagement between .
When everything else is said and done, your biggest challenge as a project manager is dealing successfully with people. People problems can be messy, uncomfortable, and nasty, but . Supporting governance development needs of individual governors, governing bodies, institutions and States is a key activity of this and other national and regional initiatives.
Another output of the Good Governance Programme is a Governance Development Plan to see how governance development is built into institutional development through clear.
Our research. Democracy. Through our research on Democracy, Development and Social Cohesion we aim to strengthen our democratic society, its institutions and practices of governance in order to promote well-being, social justice, equality and active engagement between civil society, the state and the private sector.
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