Additional Information Abstract Evaluation research can be defined as a type of study that uses standard social research methods for evaluative purposes, as a specific research methodology, and as an assessment process that employs special techniques unique to the evaluation of social programs. After the reasons for conducting evaluation research are discussed, the general principles and types are reviewed.
Evaluation research design literature how to look at some of the ways you might structure an evaluation and how to choose the way that best meets Evaluation research design literature needs. What do we mean by a design for the evaluation?
Why should you choose a design for your evaluation? When should you do so? Who should be involved in choosing a design? How do you select an appropriate design for your evaluation? In reality, an experiment is just trying something out to see how or why or whether it works.
It can be as simple as putting a different spice in your favorite dish, or as complex as developing and testing a comprehensive effort to improve child health outcomes in a city or state.
Academics and other researchers in public health and the social sciences conduct experiments to understand how environments affect behavior and outcomes, so their experiments usually involve people and aspects of the environment. A new community program or intervention is an experiment, too, one that a governmental or community organization engages in to find out a better way to address a community issue.
It usually starts with an assumption about what will work — sometimes called a theory of change - but that assumption is no guarantee. Like any experiment, a program or intervention has to be evaluated to see whether it works and under what conditions.
These arrangements for discovery are known as experimental or evaluation designs. Every evaluation is essentially a research or discovery project. Your research may be about determining how effective your program or effort is overall, which parts of it are working well and which need adjusting, or whether some participants respond to certain methods or conditions differently from others.
If your results are to be reliable, you have to give the evaluation a structure that will tell you what you want to know. The design depends on what kinds of questions your evaluation is meant to answer.
Some of the most common evaluation research questions: What component s and element s of the program or intervention were responsible for the change?
What are the unintended effects of an intervention, and how did they influence the outcomes? If you try a new method or activity, what happens? Will the program that worked in another context, or the one that you read about in a professional journal, work in your community, or with your population, or with your issue?
If you want reliable answers to evaluation questions like these, you have to ask them in a way that will show you whether you actually got results, and whether those results were in fact due to your actions or the circumstances you created, or to other factors.
In other words, you have to create a design for your research — or evaluation — to give you clear answers to your questions. An evaluation may seem simple: First, how do you measure progress?
Second, if there seems to be none, how do you know what you should change in order to increase your effectiveness? Third, if there is progress, how do you know it was caused by or contributed to your program, and not by something else? A good design for your evaluation will help you answer important questions like these.
Some specific reasons for spending the time to design your evaluation carefully include: So your evaluation will be reliable. A good design will give you accurate results.
Understanding your program to this extent makes it easier to achieve and maintain success. So you can pinpoint areas you need to work on, as well as those that are successful.
A good design can help you understand exactly where the strong and weak points of your program or intervention are, and give you clues as to how they can be further strengthened or changed for the greatest impact. So your results are credible.
If your evaluation is designed properly, others will take your results seriously. A good evaluation design can help you to identify these, and either correct for them if you can, or devise methods to deal with or incorporate them.
So you can identify unintended consequences both positive and negative and correct for them. A good design can show you all of what resulted from your program or intervention, not just what you expected. It will be much easier to conduct your evaluation if it has an appropriate design. Spending the time to choose and organize an evaluation design will pay off in the time you save later and in the quality of the information you get.
When should you choose a design for your evaluation? Ideally, this all takes place at the beginning of the process of putting together a program or intervention.A systematic review is a critical assessment and evaluation of all research studies that address a particular clinical issue. The researchers use an organized method of locating, assembling, and evaluating a body of literature on a particular topic using a set of specific criteria.
Evaluation/Research Methods. Introduction. Program/Course/Class Evaluation (the type of evaluation design the CLIPs will use to begin their work), and; has identified 20 approaches to evaluation that exist in the literature that he sees as legitimate ways of evaluating programs.
He has grouped them into three categories although the. What type of evaluation design do I need? methods including: a review of the literature on tutoring strategies and outcomes, focus groups with teachers, surveys of parents, and interviews with a cross-section of Study Designs for Program Evaluation.
The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
Research Methods is a text by Dr. Christopher L. Heffner that focuses on the basics of research design and the critical analysis of professional research in the social sciences from developing a theory, selecting subjects, and testing subjects to performing statistical analysis and writing the research report.
Principles of Research Design and Drug Literature Evaluation is an ideal foundation for professional pharmacy students and a key resource for pharmacy residents, research fellows, practitioners, and clinical researchers.