Humans have lived in the Americas for over ten thousand years. Dynamic and diverse, they spoke hundreds of languages and created thousands of distinct cultures. Native Americans built settled communities and followed seasonal migration patterns, maintained peace through alliances and warred with their neighbors, and developed self-sufficient economies and maintained vast trade networks.
The civilizations that emerged around these rivers are among the earliest known non-nomadic agrarian societies. It is because of this that the Fertile Crescent region, and Mesopotamia in particular, are often referred to as the cradle of civilization.
Agriculture and animal husbandry were widely practiced in sedentary communities, particularly in Northern Mesopotamia, and intensive irrigated hydraulic agriculture began to be practiced in the south. Eridu is the oldest Sumerian site settled during this period, around BC, and the city of Ur also first dates to the end of this period.
Proto-writing in the region dates to around BC, with the earliest texts dating to BC; early cuneiform writing emerged in BC. Uruk trade networks started to expand to other parts of Mesopotamia and as far as North Caucasusand strong signs of governmental organization and social stratification began to emerge leading to the Early Dynastic Period c.
The oldest clay tablets come from Uruk and date to the late fourth millennium BC, slightly earlier than the Jemdet Nasr Period. By the time of the Jemdet Nasr Period, the script had already undergone a number of significant changes.
It originally consisted of pictographsbut by the time of the Jemdet Nasr Period it was already adopting simpler and more abstract designs. It is also during this period that the script acquired its iconic wedge-shaped appearance. Polychrome pottery from a destruction level below the flood deposit has been dated to immediately before the Early Dynastic Period around BC.
The center of Sumerian culture remained in southern Mesopotamia, even though rulers soon began expanding into neighboring areas, and neighboring Semitic groups adopted much of Sumerian culture for their own. The earliest ziggurats began near the end of the Early Dynastic Period, although architectural precursors in the form of raised platforms date back to the Ubaid period.
It consists of a succession of royal dynasties from different Sumerian cities, ranging back into the Early Dynastic Period.
Each dynasty rises to prominence and dominates the region, only to be replaced by the next. The document was used by later Mesopotamian kings to legitimize their rule.
While some of the information in the list can be checked against other texts such as economic documents, much of it is probably purely fictional, and its use as a historical document is limited. Under Sargon and his successors, the Akkadian language was briefly imposed on neighboring conquered states such as Elam and Gutium.
After the fall of the Akkadian Empire and the overthrow of the Gutiansthere was a brief reassertion of Sumerian dominance in Mesopotamia under the Third Dynasty of Ur. Assyria in the north, and, a few centuries later, Babylonia in the south. Mehrgarh is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in the Indian subcontinent.
The earliest examples of the Indus Script date to this period,   as well as the emergence of citadels representing centralised authority and an increasingly urban quality of life. By this time, villagers had domesticated numerous crops, including peassesame seedsdatesand cotton, as well as animals, including the water buffalo.
Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells.
From a room that appears to have been set aside for bathing, waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes. The house-building in some villages in the region still resembles in some respects the house-building of the Harappans.
The massive walls of Indus cities most likely protected the Harappans from floods and may have dissuaded military conflicts. They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. A comparison of available objects indicates large scale variation across the Indus territories.
Their smallest division, which is marked on an ivory scale found in Lothal in Gujarat, was approximately 1. Harappan engineers followed the decimal division of measurement for all practical purposes, including the measurement of mass as revealed by their hexahedron weights.
However, as in other cultures, actual weights were not uniform throughout the area. The weights and measures later used in Kautilya 's Arthashastra 4th century BC are the same as those used in Lothal.
Suggested contributory causes for the localisation of the IVC include changes in the course of the river,  and climate change that is also signalled for the neighbouring areas of the Middle East. The Indus Valley climate grew significantly cooler and drier from about BC, linked to a general weakening of the monsoon at that time.
Aridification reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation's demise, and to scatter its population eastward. The residents then migrated towards the Ganges basin in the east, where they established smaller villages and isolated farms.
However trade with the old cities did not flourish. The small surplus produced in these small communities did not allow development of trade, and the cities died out. History of ChinaXia dynastyand Erlitou culture Traditional Xia sites black and Erlitou sites red Drawing on archaeologygeology and anthropologymodern scholars do not see the origins of the Chinese civilization or history as a linear story but rather the history of the interactions of different and distinct cultures and ethnic groups that influenced each other's development.
Early evidence for Chinese millet agriculture is dated to around BC,  with the earliest evidence of cultivated rice found at Chengtoushan near the Yangtze River, dated to BC.Pearson Prentice Hall and our other respected imprints provide educational materials, technologies, assessments and related services across the secondary curriculum.
We will never know whether other civilizations “currently” exist beyond a few hundred light years from earth unless we assume some faster than light signal is discovered emanating from them.
Chapter 1: The First Civilizations - Boone County Schools. I. Introduction.
History of the idea. The concept "cradle of civilization" is the subject of much debate. The figurative use of cradle to mean "the place or region in which anything is nurtured or sheltered in its earlier stage" is traced by the Oxford English Dictionary to Spenser (). Charles Rollin's Ancient History () has "Egypt that served at first as the cradle of the holy nation". Journey Across Time Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. CHAPTER 1 • The First Civilizations WH Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush.
Europeans called the Americas “the New World.” But for the millions of Native Americans they encountered, it was anything but. Chapter 1: Early Humans and the First Civilizations The First Humans and the Emergence of Civilization Civilization in Mesopotamia Greeks called the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers valley Mesopotamia 'between the rivers'.
Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat.