Wendy Grammformer Chair of U.
The iron and steel industry developed rapidly after and became one of the dominant factors in industrial America by the s. Scots Irish leadership[ edit ] Ingham examined the leadership of the industry in its most important center, Pittsburgh, as well as smaller cities.
He concludes that the leadership of the iron and steel industry nationwide was "largely Scotch Irish".
Ingham finds that the Scotch Irish held together cohesively throughout the 19th century and "developed their own sense of uniqueness. For example, Thomas Mellon b. Ulster — left northern Ireland in for the United States.
He founded the powerful Mellon familywhich played a central role in banking and industries such as aluminum and oil. As Barnhisel finds, industrialists such as James H. The American Civil War boosted the city's economy with increased production of iron and armaments, especially at the Allegheny Arsenal and the Fort Pitt Foundry.
A milestone in steel production was achieved inwhen the Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock began to make steel rail using the new Bessemer process. Mellonand Charles M. Schwab built their fortunes in Pittsburgh.
These smaller firms were built on a culture that valued local markets and the beneficial role of business in the local community. Small firms concentrated on specialized products, particularly structural steel, where the economies of scale of larger firms were no advantage.
They embraced technological change more cautiously than larger firms. They also had less antagonistic relations with workers and employed a higher percentage of highly skilled workers than their mass-production counterparts. The new industrial Pittsburgh was based on integrated mills, mass production, and modern management organization in steel and other industries.
Many manufacturers searched for large sites with railroad and river accessibility. They purchased land, designed modern plants, and sometimes built towns for workers.
Other firms bought into new communities that began as speculative industrial real estate ventures. Some owners removed their plants from the central city's labor unions to exert greater control over workers.
The region's rugged topography and dispersed natural resources of coal and gas accentuated this dispersal.
The rapid growth of steel, glass, railroad equipment, and coke industries resulted in both large mass-production plants and numerous smaller firms. As capital deepened and interdependence grew, participants multiplied, economies accrued, the division of labor increased, and localized production systems formed around these industries.
Transportation, capital, labor markets, and the division of labor in production bound the scattered industrial plants and communities into a sprawling metropolitan district. By the Pittsburgh district was a complex urban landscape with a dominant central city, surrounded by proximate residential communities, mill towns, satellite cities, and hundreds of mining towns.
Caught up in a dramatic round of industrial restructuring and labor tension, Pittsburgh steelmaker George McMurtry hired Frederick Law Olmsted 's landscape architectural firm in to design Vandergrift as a model town.
McMurtry believed in what was later known as welfare capitalismwith the company going beyond paychecks to provide for the social needs of the workers; he believed that a benign physical environment made for happier and more productive workers.
A strike and lockout at McMurtry's steelworks in Apollo, Pennsylvania, prompted him to build the new town.
Wanting a loyal workforce, he developed a town agenda that drew upon environmentalism as well as popular attitudes toward capital's treatment of labor. The Olmsted firm translated this agenda into an urban design that included a unique combination of social reform, comprehensive infrastructure planning, and private homeownership principles.
The rates of homeownership and cordial relationships between the steel company and Vandergrift residents fostered loyalty among McMurtry's skilled workers and led to McMurtry's greatest success.
In he used Vandergrift's worker-residents to break the first major strike against the United States Steel Corporation.About Olin Business School. Washington University's Olin Business School is a place where students discover and develop their talents.
Learn through challenging academics and real-world experiences. Goodwill paid $ million for the building and acre lot, purchasing it Thursday from Frick & Frack LLC, according to Montgomery County property records.
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