Constitution, anti-slavery sentiment remained high in the North throughout the late s and early s, and many petitioned Congress to abolish the practice outright. Bowing to further pressure from Southern lawmakers—who argued slave debate was driving a wedge between the newly created states—Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of This edict was similar to the Fugitive Slave Clause in many ways, but included a more detailed description of how the law was to be put into practice. In the event they captured a suspected slave, these hunters had to bring them before a judge and provide evidence proving the person was their property.
Storming of the Bastille in The reign of Louis XVI — saw a temporary revival of French fortunes, but the over-ambitious projects and military campaigns of the 18th century had produced chronic financial problems. Deteriorating economic conditions, popular resentment against the complicated system of privileges granted the nobility and clerics, and a lack of alternate avenues for change were among the principal causes for convoking the Estates-General which convened in Versailles in They proceeded to do so, and then voted a measure far more radical, declaring themselves the National Assemblyan assembly not of the Estates but of "the People".
The Assembly moved their deliberations to the king's tennis court, where they proceeded to swear the Tennis Court Oath June 20,under which they agreed not to separate until they had given France a constitution. A majority of the representatives of the clergy soon joined them, as did 47 members of the nobility.
By June 27 the royal party had overtly given in, although the military began to arrive in large numbers around Paris and Versailles. On July 11, King Louis, acting under the influence of the conservative nobles, as well as his wife, Marie Antoinetteand brother, the Comte d'Artoisbanished the reformist minister Necker and completely reconstructed the ministry.
Much of Paris, presuming this to be the start of a royal coup, moved into open rebellion. Some of the military joined the mob; others remained neutral. On July 14,after four hours of combat, the insurgents seized the Bastille fortresskilling the governor and several of his guards. The king and his military supporters backed down, at least for the time being.
Insurrection and the spirit of popular sovereignty spread throughout France. In rural areas, many went beyond this: On August 4,the National Assembly abolished feudalismsweeping away both the seigneurial rights of the Second Estate and the tithes gathered by the First Estate. In the course of a few hours, nobles, clergy, towns, provinces, companies, and cities lost their special privileges.
The revolution also brought about a massive shifting of powers from the Catholic Church to the State. Further legislation abolished monastic vows. The Civil Constitution of the Clergypassed on July 12,turned the remaining clergy into employees of the State and required that they take an oath of loyalty to the constitution.
Declaration, it comprised a statement of principles rather than a constitution with legal effect. The execution of Louis XVI in Louis XVI opposed the course of the revolution and on the night of June 20, the royal family fled the Tuileries.
However, the king was recognised at Varennes in the Meuse late on June 21 and he and his family were brought back to Paris under guard. With most of the Assembly still favouring a constitutional monarchy rather than a republicthe various groupings reached a compromise which left Louis XVI little more than a figurehead: Meanwhile, a renewed threat from abroad arose: Leopold II, Holy Roman EmperorFrederick William II of Prussiaand the king's brother Charles-Phillipe, comte d'Artois issued the Declaration of Pillnitz which considered the cause of Louis XVI as their own, demanded his total liberty and the dissolution of the Assembly, and promised an invasion of France on his behalf if the revolutionary authorities refused its conditions.
The politics of the period inevitably drove France towards war with Austria and its allies. France declared war on Austria April 20, and Prussia joined on the Austrian side a few weeks later. The French Revolutionary Wars had begun. In the Brunswick Manifestothe Imperial and Prussian armies threatened retaliation on the French population should it resist their advance or the reinstatement of the monarchy.
As a consequence, King Louis was seen as conspiring with the enemies of France. He was arrested on August 10, Between and , metropolitan France (that is, without overseas or colonial possessions) was the second most populous country of Europe, behind Russia, and the fourth most populous country in the world (behind China, India, and Russia); between and , metropolitan France was the third most populous country of Europe, behind Russia and Germany.
To fill the new factory jobs, immigrants poured into the United States in the first mass wave of immigration in the s and s. Known as the period of old immigration, this time saw million immigrants come into the United States raising the overall population by 20 million people.
The resulting Compromise of was supposed to ensure that the interests of both sides remained intact. For the North, the Compromise guaranteed that California would enter the Union as a Free State and the slave trade would end in the District of Columbia.
The institution of slavery was embedded in the U.S. Constitution, and it became a critical problem to be dealt with by Americans in the early 19th century.
Whether slavery would be allowed to spread to new states and territories became a volatile issue at various times throughout the early s.
> Global Challenges. Our expertise and global reach help promote safety and health for the planet and its inhabitants. > Strategic Priorities Our focus revolves around Agriculture & Nutrition, Advanced Materials and Bio-Based Industrials. March 7 – United States Senator Daniel Webster gives his "Seventh of March" speech in which he endorses the Compromise of in order to prevent a possible civil war.
March 16 – Nathaniel Hawthorne 's The Scarlet Letter is published.