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Coal is not the answer to power poverty in places like India and China. Reuters Tackling climate change and reducing poverty can, and indeed must, go hand in hand.
And the role for coal is rapidly shrinking, writes Helen Szoke. Over the past year, the coal industry has become increasingly strident in mounting its case that coal is the beacon of hope for the more than one billion people living in poverty who still lack access to electricity.
If the rhetoric of the industry is to be believed, exporting more and more of our coal to countries including India will provide safe, reliable electricity to poor peopleas well as continued prosperity for Australia. But its argument does not stand up to even the most basic scrutiny.
Firstly, emissions from coal are the biggest contributor to climate change. As a leading international agency working around the world, Oxfam is already seeing the world's poorest people pushed deeper into poverty through the increasing risk of droughts, floods, hunger and disease due to climate change.
Secondly, there are serious limitations to the viability and cost effectiveness of coal and other fossil fuels to actually deliver electricity to those who still live without it.
Over the past year, Carbon Tracker, Vasudha Foundation, The Australia Institute, Overseas Development Institute, Oxfam and many other organisations have explored the challenge of increasing energy access, with each providing robust evidence that distributed, renewable energy solutions are best suited to tackling energy poverty.
About four out of five people living without electricity are in rural areas that often lack connection to a conventional energy grid. The prohibitive cost of grid extensions, coupled with buying grid-based electricity, eliminates the cost advantage that coal may otherwise have.
In India, the coal-rich states have some of the lowest rates of electricity access in the country.
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Local renewable energy sources - such as mini-grid and off-grid solutions like as small-scale solar PV and wind - not only offer a more affordable and practical solution for many communities, they are free of many other devastating impacts associated with coal.
Air pollution from coal is a cause of hundreds of thousands of premature deaths worldwide.
Earlier this year, Oxfam documented how the Benga coal mine in Mozambique had forcibly displaced thousands of people, fractured communities, and left people without enough food and water. The remoteness and poor transport reduced people's access to employment and other economic opportunities.
On the other hand, renewable energy has proven to be a catalyst for jobs, local economic growth and a more equitable model of development around the world. Throughout the Pacific, renewable energy such as solar is liberating communities from the crippling costs of fossil fuel imports.
Under the influence of an ailing coal industry, the Australian Government has been too busy distorting critical discussions about climate change and poverty alleviation to notice the striking shifts in energy and climate policy around the world.
Meanwhile, the Australian Government's assessment of the Indian coal market doesn't adequately take into account recent dramatic changes in India's energy policies. India has dramatically scaled up its renewable energy ambitions and aims to install GW of solar energy by in order to ensure universal energy access.
The Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis recently labelled the coal industry the poorest performing sector in today's global economy. Failure to recognise these rapid shifts in the global energy landscape and to begin embracing our abundant renewable energy opportunities will damage the Australian economy and cost Australians dearly.
Australia's first responsibility is to phase out coal from our own energy supply over time. As a wealthy developed country, we must also do our part to support developing countries with their own renewable energy plans. With the adoption of the UN Sustainable Development Goals to be launched in September and the Paris climate conference at the end of the year, will be a defining year for sustainable development and international climate action.
The Australian Government's continued disregard for what is at stake and the gathering international momentum towards real action is nothing short of staggering. I've recently returned from Vanuatu, where I witnessed both the immense impact of Cyclone Pam, one of the strongest cyclones ever recorded in the South Pacificand the extraordinary efforts of the Vanuatu people to show leadership and determination in confronting climate change.
In Kiribati, one of the poorest countries I have visited, I met with people already dealing with rising seas that swallow land and homes. Climate change affects us all but is hitting poorer communities first and hardest - those who have contributed the very least to the problem.
Yet when it comes to taking action, many developing countries are leaving Australia for dust.
From a giant like China to the tiny nations of the Pacific, developing and emerging economies are demonstrating the leadership and foresight that remains so lacking in Australia.
The good news is that tackling climate change and reducing poverty can, and indeed must, go hand in hand. We can transform our own economy while at the same time helping our poor neighbours. Why wouldn't we want to embrace this win-win opportunity? The Australian Government can choose whether to remain down the deep, dark coal mine of the past, or change course to become part of today's climate and energy solutions, and help create a brighter future for Australia and the rest of the world.Introduction to Bacteria Bacteria are single celled prokaryotic organisms that lack membrane bound organelles.
They are involved in many important processes within the soil such as decomposition, bioremediation, symbiosis and . Spacecraft and space exploration. To date five spacecraft (Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11 and New Horizons) are on trajectories which will take them out of the Solar System and into interstellar benjaminpohle.comg an extremely unlikely collision with some object, the craft should persist indefinitely.
The Energy Racket. By Wade Frazier. Revised in June Introduction and Summary. A Brief Prehistory of Energy and Life on Earth. Early Civilization, Energy and the Zero-Sum Game. Potassium-argon ‘dates’ of recent Mt. Ngauruhoe lava flows.
As you can see from the ‘dates’ in the above table the lava flows that were less than 55 years old were given dates from , years to million plus or minus 20 thousand years. Perhaps lunar miners could use something analogous to Bruce Damer's idea for asteroids of using CO in an enclosure warmed by the sunlight and iron and nickel extracted in attached 3D printer - .
Microorganisms - Introduction A microorganism (also spelled as microrganism) or microbe is an organism that is microscopic (too small to be seen by the human eye). Microorganisms are manifold.