Next Chapter Chapter 7 Identifying and Prioritizing Stakeholders and Publics One of the most important steps in strategic and effective public relations is accurately identifying the publics with which you want to build mutually beneficial relationships. These differences help an organization segment its publics into groups with similar values and expectations and to focus communication strategies. Winnpp. Once organizations have identified their stakeholders, there is a struggle for attention:
Next Chapter Chapter 7 Identifying and Prioritizing Stakeholders and Publics One of the most important steps in strategic and effective public relations is accurately identifying the publics with which you want to build mutually beneficial relationships.
These differences help an organization segment its publics into groups with similar values and expectations and to focus communication strategies.
Winnpp. Once organizations have identified their stakeholders, there is a struggle for attention: Sacrificing the needs of one stakeholder for the needs of the other is a dilemma with which many organizations struggle.
When these conflicts arise it is important to the success of the organization that it has prioritized each stakeholder according to the situation.
This chapter will provide a model that moves from the broadest attempts at identifying all stakeholders, to the more specific need of identifying key publics for communication strategies. The model is situational, and priority of stakeholders and publics will change according to the situation.
Defining Stakeholders and Publics A stakeholder A group or an individual who is affected by or who can affect the success of an organization, such as employees, customers, shareholders, communities, and suppliers.
That it is a group of people who face a similar problem, recognize the problem, and organize themselves to do something about it.
Therefore, publics organize from the ranks of stakeholders when they recognize an issue and act upon it. Stakeholder Linkages to the Organization Organization should attempt to identify all stakeholders before narrowing them by their attributes.
One way to do this is by considering how these groups are linked to the organization. A model by Grunig and Hunt breaks these links into four groups by linkage: Grunig and Hunt Grunig and Hunt developed the model based on the work of Esman ; Evan ; Parsons Enabling stakeholders Stakeholders who have some control and authority over an organization, such as stockholders, board of directors, elected officials, and governmental legislators and regulators.
These stakeholders provide an organization with resources and necessary levels of autonomy to operate.
When enabling relationships falter, the resources can be withdrawn and the autonomy of the organization limited, restricted, or regulated. Functional stakeholders Stakeholders who are essential to the operations of an organization. Functional stakeholders are categorized as being part of the input by providing labor and resources to create products or services, or as part of the output by receiving those products or services.
Normative stakeholders Stakeholders who share a common interest with an organization. These associations or groups share similar values, goals, or problems.
These stakeholders share similar values, goals, or problems and often include competitors that belong to industrial or professional associations. Diffused stakeholders Stakeholders, including publics, who have infrequent interactions with an organization. They become involved with an organization based on the actions of the organization.
These are the publics that often arise in times of a crisis; linkages include the media, the community, activists, and other special interest groups.
Going through the linkage model should help an organization identify all its stakeholders. The diffused linkage stakeholders would be different according to situation, but the enabling, functional, and normative linkage stakeholders are likely to be constant.
Rawlins adapted and used with permission from Grunig. Those publics who do not face a problem are nonpublics Stakeholders who do not face a problem related to organizational decisions that affect them.
He identified three variables that explain why certain people become active in certain situations: Level of involvement is measured by the extent to which people connect themselves personally with the situation. However, people do not seek or process information unless they recognize the connection between them and a problem, which is the level of problem recognition.
Whether people move beyond information processing to the information seeking behavior of active publics often depends on whether they think they can do something about the problem. Constraint recognition The level of personal efficacy a person believes that he or she holds, and the extent to which he or she is having an impact on the issue.
Those who think that nothing can be done have high constraint recognition and are less compelled to become active in the resolution of the problem. Another consideration, referent criteria Standards of judgment that people apply to new situations based on previous experiences with the issue or the organization involved.
Active publics are likely to have high levels of involvement and problem recognition, and lower levels of constraint recognition. Because they recognize how the problem affects them and they think they can do something about it, Grunig theorized that this public will actively seek information and act on that information.
Aware publics will process information and might act, but are limited by lower levels of involvement and problem recognition, or higher levels of constraint recognition.
They are simply not active on the issue.Oct 06, · Thankfully, Rahul Sagar’s book Secrets and Leaks: The Dilemma of State Secrecy provides a thoughtful and well-researched analysis of the regulation of intelligence activities. Sagar, currently teaching at the National University of Singapore following a stint as an assistant professor at Princeton, starts by accurately stating that .
public relations strategy. STUDY. PLAY. what is strategic communication? - A group of people that share a common interest vis-a-visa an org.
opinions, and interests of the publics related to the situa1on or issue affec1ng the organiza1on • Relationship with organization - Customers, producers, limiters, and enablers. STATE SECRECY VS THE PUBLICS INTEREST The requirement of secrecy by the government is not all-inclusive nor is it sometimes in the governments best interest.
However, there are overriding concerns within certain areas in which secrecy is paramount. Two examples will bear light on this. What is a stakeholder analysis? Stakeholder analysis is the identification of a project's key stakeholders, an assessment of their interests, and the ways in which these interests affect project risk and viability.
The year marks another exciting change for The SAR Activity Review-Trends, Tips & Issues. The redesigned publication will now contain a short-ened Trends and Analysis section, which will address one topic of interest to depository institutions and another topic of interest to one of the other regu-lated industries.
Conflict of Interest in Science Communication: More than a Financial Issue Report from Esteve Foundation Discussion Group, April Harvey Marcovitch, 1, * Virginia Barbour, 2 Carme Borrell, 3 Felix Bosch, 4 Esteve Fernández, 5 Helen Macdonald, 6 Ana Marušić, 7 and Magne Nylenna 8.