Fagan Pennsylvania State University Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history. In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history.
Courses Director of undergraduate studies: Students read and write about a wide variety of literary works across periods, genres, and national traditions.
They investigate ancient and contemporary approaches to literary study, theories and methods of comparison, and the relationship of literature to film and other media.
Majors have the freedom to construct a program of study that reflects their intellectual goals. All prospective majors should register with the director of undergraduate studies, who will work with them to develop a coherent sequence of courses suited to their individual interests.
The majors offer a number of their own courses, which constitute the core of the programs. Other courses are normally chosen from different language and literature programs, many of which offer courses on literature and film in translation.
Students with a particular interest in film or literary translation may wish to elect the film track or translation track within the majors, as described below.
Prospective majors are strongly encouraged to begin the study of a foreign language as early as possible in their academic careers and to continue such study throughout their time at Yale.
Students interested in graduate study in comparative literature should be aware that many programs require reading knowledge of two or three foreign languages.
Requirements of the Literature and Comparative Cultures major for the Class of and subsequent classes This standard literature major requires twelve term courses, including the senior requirement. Beyond the two required courses and the senior essay, the major requires nine term courses.
These include three courses in a foreign literature with readings in the original language, three courses that fulfill the period requirement, and three elective courses.
One of the electives must involve a significant element of literary or cultural theory. All three elective courses may be taken in any literature department and may include two courses in a related discipline that has direct bearing on the student's program of study in literature, such as history of art, philosophy, anthropology, music, or theater studies.
One of the elective courses may be in creative writing or directed studies. Foreign literature requirement All majors are required to take at least three courses, one of which may award the language distributional requirement L5in an ancient or modern foreign literature, in which the literature is read in the original language.
Two courses can be taken at a basic literature level normally equivalent to the third year of language studybut at least one course must be taken at an advanced level normally equivalent to the fourth year of language study or higher. A literature course in English translation is sometimes suitable as a foreign literature course.
In such cases, majors are expected to request additional assignments from their instructors that demonstrate they have engaged with the texts in the original language. They should submit the appropriate form, signed by the instructor, attesting to their intent to do so. This form is available in the department office in RoomCollege St.
Period requirement Students are required to take at least one course in three of five historical periods: Courses taken from other departments excluding Directed Studies may fulfill the period requirement with DUS permission.
Theory requirement All students must take one elective course that involves a significant component of literary or cultural theory. Students who wish to know if a particular course, particularly those offered in other departments, may count toward this requirement should consult the DUS.
In addition, students in the film track must take one course in film theory and must choose their three electives from courses in film and media studies. Senior Requirement In the senior essay, required of all majors, students develop a research topic of their choice and work closely with a faculty adviser, preferably from the department.
Normally, the essay makes use of texts in the language of their original composition. Any exceptions must be approved by the DUS.
Students with an especially well-developed project may petition to write a yearlong senior essay. Interested juniors must apply to the DUS by the last day of classes in the spring term.An Analysis of the Social Policy and Economy of Brazil: Macroeconomic Policy, Industrial Policy, Central Bank’s Responses, Labor Market, and Social Security ( words, 7 pages) Social Policy and Brazils EconomySocial policy is applicable to many areas of policy which are usually within a political or a governmental setting.
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Our clients know us for our reliability, speed to market, and long-standing razor sharp focus on customer service. Utilizing state of the art digital printing, we produce product packaging. Historical development of Italian episcopacy is particular.
Until the political institution of unitary national State () we see various regional episcopacies, submitted both to the Holy See and the territorial secular power of one of the pre-unitary Italian States.
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Closer analysis of Italy’s political personnel under Fascism corroborates this judgment, as shown by Didier Musiedlak’s Parlementaires en chemise noire, an empirical and prosopographical study that rests on a data basis of no less than Italian parliamentarians.